Providing news and views from a broadcast engineer's perspective since September 1986
Under the heading of – Why don’t people listen to scientists and engineers - - -
The SR530 or Oso slide has been a tragic event to be sure. The
good news is that our industry really covered the event very well.
Interestingly, the first news of this tragedy came from the National
Weather Service via the EAS. As the media dug a bit deeper into
this situation it became clear that Engineers and Geologists knew about
the risks of people living in that area and the local government did
little to stop issuing building permits as property owners were eager to
sell their land and builders eager to build houses. Could it be
that the profit motive caused warnings to be ignored?
The May issue of Discover Magazine has a piece worth reading on how
there have long been warnings about what would happen should a big
hurricane strike NYC, yet no one wanted to hear about it. Seems to
me there was even a TV program produced that foretold what would
happen. It got in the way of making profits while building in
harm’s way was approved.
Interestingly, Geologists have been trying to warn us in the Puget Sound
basin about the ‘big one’. Yet how many continue to ignore these
warnings? I have been voicing concern that all too few
broadcasters will have a functional station after this, certain to take
place, quake. It’s my belief that our post-quake area will likely
have only a hand-full of stations on the air and those will likely be
those that do not have news departments or the structure to be able to
get emergency information to the public. Why do you think that
this is the case? I suspect a couple of things are in play here –
1) Spending money on being able to survive a huge earthquake takes money
away from the bottom line and this is something that stockholders would
never understand. 2) The reaction that a large percentage of our
population has when you mention – science, math, geological warnings,
engineers etc., causes a severe case of ‘Deer in the headlights’.
This is serious stuff – and most folks don’t want to be concerned with
it. History is full of stories where people ignore those that they
should pay attention to, and end up paying a high price for it.
The recent cluster of quakes off the northern coast of Vancouver Island
should send a wake-up call to everyone that the earth is active in these
parts and this 6.6 is just a little one compared to what is
predicted. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of these
predictions is the fact that they are based on history. They say
history repeats itself…and so do major quakes.
I have been having discussions with folks at WSEM about what to do after
a major quake hits this area. In a previous column I listed the
services that would be out of commission and for how long.
Let’s take a look at what our world will be like after a major
quake. Just about all utilities will be out. Massive power
outages will force citizens to turn on their car radios or, if they are
smart enough, to start cranking on that wind-up radio to try and find
out just how bad it is. Then again, few likely own them because
this would require paying attention to warnings and spending money as a
result. (How many battery powered radios are there around these
days anyway?). Cellular and land-line phone systems will be either
not working or will be so overtaxed as to be useless. Once they
are able to locate a functioning radio station, the question will be how
to get official information to their listeners. With all
conventional communications system knocked out, quite possibly this will
once again be Ham Radio to the rescue. I can see those emergency
management facilities becoming a beehive of coordination and disaster
recovery and the Hams proving the communications circuits to the
broadcasters who will be informing the public. You noticed I did
not mention TV. There are a couple of problems here: 1) TV
stations are generally not very hardened and 2) There are very few
portable, battery powered or crank up TV sets.
The bottom line is we have a lot of work to do to prepare for our
‘big-one’. The first step is to try and find out how to get those
with the power and authority to listen to those scientists and engineers
that have been sounding the warning for year. Let’s hope we don’t
witness a massive scale Oso within this highly populated area.
Another item for this category is Climate Change. Why is it that
this has become a political issue? Is it because a former elected
official came out on one side of the issue that our highly polarized
society feels that if ‘he feels that way’ then I am obligated to feel
another? This is a story for another time, unless you operate KKMO
or KVI, whose antenna systems are just above sea-level (Most of the
I was recently up at South Mountain dealing with some other
issues. A number other folks were there for other purposes, among
them, Bill Wolfenbarger. Bill figured that we got acquainted back
in 1969 when he was at ‘Colorful’ KOL. Bill is one of the very few that has made the transition from Engineer to owner in this business.
One area where there will be a number of
openings is on the technical side of this industry. The average age of broadcast engineers is
increasing at a steady rate. I am not
sure that those in management positions are prepared for what’s coming. Likely most of them will want to hire
another IT guy figuring that the old guy that retired or expired was not
Those of us that work in the Broadcast
Industry, and especially at transmitter locations, have a lot of words and
terms that are used for something completely different on the ‘outside’. Here
are some examples that come to mind:
Drive – Something that goes into an
Amplifier – vs. that letter ‘D’ on your cars shift lever.
Bias – A voltage used in RF Amplifiers –
vs. something to do with equality.
Hybrid – A device used to split or combine
RF energy – vs. a vehicle that uses gas and batteries.
Cavity – A type of filter used with RF
energy – vs. something you pay your dentist to repair.
Filter – A device that passes certain
frequencies- vs. something you put in your coffee maker.
Dehydrator – A device for creating dry
compressed air – vs. something used to dry out food.
Manometer – A device for measuring pressure
difference – vs ....(Not sure I want to go there.)
Racks – Device for holding equipment –
vs (More slippery slope.)
Transmission Line – A device for moving
radio frequency energy to various locations within a
transmitter plant – vs the device that
moves coolant from your cars transmission to the radiator.
UPS – Uninterruptable Power Supply – vs. a
competitor to FedEx.
Coax – Short for Coaxial Cable – vs. to
Tuning – Adjusting a transmitters
performance – vs. something you do to a musical instrument.
Propagation – Radio waves in space – vs.
making more creatures.
Level – The amplitude of a signal –
vs. something to determine whether
something is the same
distance from the earth at both ends.
For those of you that still work with, or
remember, Vacuum Tubes –
Plate – Anode of a vacuum tube – vs. something you eat off of.
Grid – Control device in a vacuum tube –
vs. something that goes wrong when the lights go out.
Screen – An element within a Tube – vs. something to keep out insects.
And the list goes on – (Got an addition –
let me know.)
How about some
memories? Take a look at this old Test
Pattern – Complete with Dumont on the lower right. When I first got into school to learn about
this stuff, the school had a bunch of old Dumont field equipment (lucky we
never fired it up). Thing I recall most
about that old stuff was how they switched video sources – (It was before
fader-bars.) One of the cases contained
the ‘switcher’ which consisted of an A-Scope and a row of pots.In those days video source changes were
handled in much the same way as audio.
For the first time
the Washington State EAS Committee (The SECC) will be meeting in Eastern
Washington. Historically the majority of
our meetings have been at the Washington State Emergency Management facility at
Camp Murray with occasional gatherings at the NWS facility at Sand Point. On May 13th the SECC will be
meeting in Ellensburg at Kittcom. The
highlight of this meeting will be the voting on our proposed new State EAS
Plan. There will be many other items on
the agenda, for sure. If you would like to attend,I’m sure there will be car-pooling from North
Bend. If you would like to participate
by phone you will be able to do that too, just as usual.Details and a meeting agenda will be
distributed on the State EAS Remailer May 10th or 11th.
(KXLY), Tim Schall (now with Townsquare Media), Don Eckis (WSU/NWPR) and I met
in Ellensburg recently to deal with EAS Monitoring Assignments. A great deal was learned about the FCC’s
role in EAS via my participation in a recent CSRIC Committee. As a result, we
have revised Tabs 5, 6 and 14, as our meeting was to deal with those issues. Afterward we had an enjoyable lunch where
Don wanted us to know that KEYG in Grand Coulee was the best radio station by a
After skipping the
last couple of years, I managed to make it to the big show in the desert this
year and attended the NAB Convention. The principle reason I was there was to participate in a number of EAS related
events. Both of the Federal agencies
involved with the EAS were there in force – FEMA as well as the FCC. I am very pleased with the leadership in the
other Washington these days.
Having not been to
Las Vegas in a couple of years, here are some impressions: I flew Alaska and
landed at a brand new terminal (very nice) was met by Richard Rudman, whom I
spent most of the time with during my stay (he was my ground
transportation).We stayed at a hotel
south of the strip that was not served by convention buses etc. Perhaps we were
the only broadcasters in the place? The strip has changed, with a huge increase in the use of glitzy
electronic signs. You think the video
billboards around here are impressive? They are toys compared to what they
have there now. You almost need sunglasses at night to view them. Seattle has their waterfront ‘Wheel’. Las
Vegas has a new one too. Theirs is, as you would suspect, huge. I attended the Nautel NUG meeting where they
showed off their new GV series of transmitters. They certainly raised the bar
again. (Understand Hubbard is buying one for installation on West Tiger
Mt).One name was missing at this year’s
show – Harris. On the transmission
side, they are now known as Gates-Air as the name Gates is re-cycled. I only
had part of Monday and Tuesday to look at the ‘toys’ and, as usual, just about
all of the LV Convention Center was filled. Attended the SBE Frequency Coordination
meeting. As usual, someone is trying to mess with the 2-Gig TV Eng Band. I stopped by the Magnum Tower booth where I
learned that indeed it was the Ron Smith that worked on towers in this area for
many years that died in a fall from a tower in Texas earlier this year. Attendance
was reported to be just under 100,000, with over 1700 vendors showing their
wares. I was constantly reminded just
how many people I know. After spending
10 years on the SBE National Board, and
attending a great many of these events, you get to know a lot of
people. Frankly, more recognized me than theother way around, which is
good, because at this point in life it’s nice that my face somewhat
looks the same. The SBE had their 50 year celebration meeting
where they showed a video telescoping the history of the society. I
made it in one frame being presented an Engineer of the Year Award a
few years ago. Dinners in Las Vegas are always a treat as there
are a large number of wonderful places to eat. The highlight of
one dinner was Al Kenyon explaining undersea cables. The good news
is all the walking equalized all the calories I consumed and I came
back weighing the same. The weather was decent too. No
blistering heat or sand storms. On Wednesday night I attended the
Amateur Radio reception. Am happy to note that our own BSW was one
of the sponsors. As usual, I did not win anything. However
Betty Dalke did. That was close as we were at the same
table. I’m part of the EAS group called the BWWG (You can look it
up) and already plans are being made by our leader, Richard Rudman, for
next year's event. So, perhaps, I will return – one more time.
Some people In the
news: Nick Winter was laid off from his
position in the Engineering Dept. at KPLU. He is now looking for
opportunities. Doug Fisher, who has lived
in Longview for many years, is moving to Olympia. Working with Doug’s ComTek service is Alex,
Jim Dalke’s Grandson.Doug is looking to
hire a Tech. Tim Schall is now getting
settled in with Townsquare media, with radio responsibilities in Yakima and
Tri-Cites (he has recently been very helpful with our State EAS program.)
Understand Channel 9 is still looking to fill the position he left. Buzz Anderson is doing some work with Bill
Wolfenbarger in SW Washington.WSU still
has an opening in Pullman.
The following is a
picture of the KIRO-FM transmitters at West Tiger Mt. A lot of history here. These rigs were
first installed at KNBQ at Indian Hill near Tacoma. In 1987, Nick Winter and I moved them to the
present location, where they were the first FM station on that mountain.Later, under Viacom, the station became
KBSG. These two venerable Continentals
were part of the first production run at the Dallas Continental factory, hence
the mixture of Collins Gray and Continental beige. Inthe present mode, the transmitters operate in parallel. The station is hoping to purchase a new transmitter
this coming year.
Another passing to
write about this month – I’m sad to report that Jon Marcinko passed away on
April 25th.Jon did not
work in broadcasting,however,he managed to touch many who did. I first met Jon via Amateur Radio back in
the early 70’s. He and I went on to
become friends and together formed the WWARA, the organization that handles
frequency coordination for Amateur Radio VHF and UHF repeater systems. Jon worked mainly in the area of 2-way
radio, spending many years with Radio Systems on South Weller St., where he
worked with the late Arne Skoog, later working with State DNR and DOT. Jon was a wealth of knowledge and, for those
that knew him, a lot of fun. One of the
most memorable times I recall was when we had made the change in channel
spacing on 2-meters to 20 KHz and the folks in Texas were considering doing the
same and asked us to come down and attend their meeting. The next day he and I drove to Austin Texas. Jon was a member of our 6 meter repeater
group that we called Channel 1 (because the spectrum used was TV Channel
1). Thanks to the efforts of Nick
Winter, the call letters for our little club have become W7FHZ, Jon’s original
call from which he earned the nick-name 'Fuzzy'.
Working for the
Murrow College at WSU the last 4+ years, I have become more aware of the Murrow
Awards that are handed out each year. Some winners need mentioning: In Region 1 which includes Washington,
Oregon and Idaho – Overall Excellence in the large market category:Seattle – KIRO-FM and KOMO-TV. In Region 3, which includes Colorado –
Denver – KOA-AM and KCNC-TV. There are
many more winnersin various categories. Another award given to radio stations is the
annual Crystal Awards. The winners were
honored at the annual NAB Show Radio Luncheon. Interesting to note that no station in this area was named….In fact, the
only station on the ‘Left-Coast’ to pick up a Crystal was KHHT-FM in L.A.
Sure sounded funny seeing this on ABC
News. On April 16th they ran a story about the worst jobs in
America. Coming in at #196 was Broadcaster. Considering the turmoil in this business
in the last few years, I wonder how many of you that work in this industry
would recommend your kids follow your footsteps? Unfortunately,
Broadcasting has lost it’s luster. Not only are jobs in broadcasting on the
low end of the list, but when the Feds are looking for someone to blame, guess
who is charged? Yep, tis us. Take the matter of the killing of
birds. Likely due to objections over
the way towers look, broadcasters became the bad guys on the block because
those awful towers were killing our feathered friends. If you dig a bit deeper into this picture
you find that towers may account for a dead bird once in a while. (Frankly I’ve
rarely seen a dead bird at the base of a tower after over 50 years of
looking).So who are the REAL criminals
in this caper? The biggest serial
killers are buildings and windows. I
think we have all experienced a poor bird crashing into a window.
Next on the list are High Tension Power
Lines, followed by Cats and then Moving Vehicles (yes, I have killed a
of birds, perhaps because I was driving in the wrong direction?)
Pesticides, and then, Communications Towers. Below Towers,
surprise surprise, comes Wind Turbines. Is it not interesting, and
those Towers and Turbines kill less birds but get all the blame for
deaths? Oh yes, whose survey is this? None
other than the US Forest Service.
Always interesting when any radio or TV
program hits a landmark. Can you
believe that SNL is about to celebrate 40 years? Then there is Meet the Press which goes back
to 1945. Nothing however comes close to
the Grand Old Opry that goes back to 1925, but that was slightly before TV.
Time to look again at things we in this
area can brag about. A survey was recently released on the 9 best states for
retirement. The writers considered
factors like income potential, taxes, cost of living etc. Scoring 7 out of 10 was Washington
State. What they did not elaborate on
was – where – in Washington.I have to
think that the cost of living in many Eastern Washington towns is considerably
lower than the Seattle area. Scoring
even higher was Wyoming for their low taxes and housing costs.
Another measure of how our area stacks up
comes from Gallup. A measurement called
the ‘Economic Confidence Index'. Using
that ‘yard-stick’ WDC and San Jose are tied for #1, followed by metro San
Francisco, Minneapolis-St Paul and then – (Fanfare please) at #4 –
Another survey looked at the least obese US
cities. Sorry Seattle, we must be consuming too many high octane/calorie
coffee drinks. However, Bellingham did make the list, as did Boulder, CO.Let me know if someone shows up at an SBE
Chapter Meeting to measure BMI’s….I’d better skip that meeting.
Here’s something you don’t hear about very
often. US Marshals shutting down a pirate (unlicensed) radio
station. Took place in Boston. Interestingly you can look on
for the best frequency for an un-licensed station in the Seattle area
quickly see that 101.9 is your best bet. Apparently others do just that. Recently, when driving through North Bend I heard one running what sounded
like audio from old TV programs. In
the Kent area there is one on that frequency running some sort of Latino
program. I have to wonder where the
pirates will go when all the LPFM’s get on the air. Hmmmm seems to me there a
quiet frequency on the AM Band….At least in Kirkland.What do you want to bet………………….
Finally some overdue recognition for the
inventor of FM Radio, Major Armstrong near the famous Alpine tower near Yonkers,
N.Y., where the major demonstrated to the world FM on 42.8, a very nice
plaque. Wonder what Armstrong would
think today with AM rapidly falling to FM? Speaking of which, the FCC has received a number of comments in its
effort to revitalize the historic band. In my view there is little the Commish can do, from a regulatory
standpoint, that will increase the business viability of the band. There are a number of reasons why AM
stations are dying, to some extent I submit that this is a natural process that
should be left to play out. My guess
is that in 20 years we will see a considerable reduction in the number of AM
stations. Perhaps what the FCC should
do is let this process play out and, in the process, permit upgrades (more
power less directional antennas etc.) for those that survive. I am certainly old enough to remember when
the number of AM’s was much less than it is now. In those days I recall
spending many an enjoyable evening listening to stations from all over the
country. The FCC responded to applications for more stations to the point that
the band, in many cases, became overcrowded. Perhaps, in years ahead, the FM band will go through something similar?
A new radio talk format? Perhaps. Word is an AM Station in WDC has changed to ‘Libertarian Talk’. With our area's apparent acceptance of
Conservative TalkRadio, perhaps we will
see it here too?
Read something recently about how utilities
are facing a ‘brain-drain’.A recent
piece in Forbes points out how utility companies are faced with half their
engineers becoming retirement eligible this year.Hmm – That sounds familiar, does it not? Not all is rosy in the world of
Engineering in this area, especially if you work for Boeing who has apparently
figured that they can save a lot of money by hiring engineers in states where
wages are not as high. Boeing has been
teaching us all to not be complacent and to better understand that a company
will go wherever to lower their costs. The bottom line will always trump history and labor unions.
KING-TV surprised more than a few when they
recently announced that their home-team home was up for sale. Apparently the new owners of the station(s),
Gannett, have determined that they don’t need that much room. The question now is – Where would they go? If they are like others that have changed
locations, they will come up with a place where there is no microwave path
between the studio and transmitter. Apparently the move is being fast tracked so we should find out soon.
The little station in Forks has applied to
move their FM (KBDB) off their AM tower to a higher elevation site. That’s a great move for the Twilight Town
station as there is little population density in that corner of the world, and
greater coverage will be an asset.
The new World Trade Center building in NYC
has become a magnet for those that want to climb it…or jump from it. This has
resulted in the head of security resigning (or so they say).We’ve
long heard of the term ‘attractive nuisance’. When it’s in the
biggest city in the country and 1776 feet tall, it’s bound to
Did you ever wonder where the word
‘Engineer’ comes from? The origin is
from a Latin word meaning ‘cleverness’. Wikipedia defines it this way –
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics, and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical,
societal and commercial problems. Engineers design materials, structures and
systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation,
safety, and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin roots ingeniare ("to contrive, devise") and ingenium ("cleverness").
Perhaps we need to temper this a bit and
reflect on other occupations where the word engineer is used -Sanitation - Locomotive - Flight etc. Then there are questions about those that
are P.E.’s. Can you be a Professional
Engineer if you are not employed?
Time to close this
edition …I leave you with this contribution from Alan Lentz:
I thought you would want to know about this e-mail virus. Even the most
advanced programs from Norton or McAfee cannot take care of this one. It
appears to affect those who were born prior to 1965.
1. Causes you to send the same e-mail twice. Done that!
2. Causes you to send a blank e-mail! That too!
3. Causes you to send e-mail to the wrong person. yep!
4. Causes you to send it back to the person who sent it to you. Aha!
5. Causes you to forget to attach the attachment. Well darn!
6. Causes you to hit "SEND" before you've finished. Oh, no not again!
7. Causes you to hit "DELETE" instead of "SEND.." And I just hate that!
8. Causes you to hit "SEND" when you should "DELETE." Oh No!
IT IS CALLED THE "C-NILE VIRUS."
Catch you next month, Lord willing, in most of these same locations. Think Summer!!!!